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Event: EP Epidemic
Number: 2023-000034
Country: NGA Nigeria
Location: Kano, Yobe, Katsina, Sokoto, Enugu, Ogun, Osun, Kaduna, Lagos
, and Zamfara states.
Date (YMD): 2023-3-11
Information Source:Nigeria Red Cross
Comments: There has been an alarming increase in the diphtheria in Nigeria since early 2023, worsen in march. The suspected cases reported increased from 136 cases in Week 1 of 2023 to 253 cases. As of March 2, 2023, Nigeria Centre for Disease Control (NCDC) recorded again further increase of the disease. In total of 733 suspected cases, including 89 deaths (CFR 12.3%) with children between the ages of 5 and 18 are the age group most afflicted. The overall case fatality rate is (12.3). World Health Organization (WHO) latest data received from ProMed, reported that 20 states are currently reported suspected cases in Nigeria, with the majority of cases reported from Kano (74%), Yobe (12%), Katsina (6%), Sokoto (2%), Enugu ( 1%), Ogun ( 1%), Osun (1%), Kaduna (1%), Lagos (1%), and Zamfara (1%) states. Osun  and lagos state has high cases of zero dose children who are at risk of diphtheria. This outbreak has been labelled as one of the most recently severe outbreaks of diphtheria in Nigeria in recent years. Diphtheria is a disease that affects most people without the vaccine, and the NCDC reports that out of the suspected cases, only 27 (12.5%) out of 216 confirmed cases were fully vaccinated with a diphtheria toxin-containing vaccine. There have been laboratory-confirmed cases in addition to clinically suspected cases, and the NCDC is collaborating with state health departments and partners to improve surveillance and response to the outbreak. NCDC has been working with stakeholders to increase the awareness of the disease, however the cases continues to increase. NCDC was first notified of suspected diphtheria cases in Kano and Lagos states on December 1, 2022. On January 20, 2023, the Nigeria Centre for Disease Control and Prevention (NCDC) officially declared the situation as an outbreak of Diphtheria cases in Lagos and Kano States, which were the first to confirm Diphtheria cases. Diphtheria quickly spread to other states. The National technical working group multi-partner, multi-sectoral Emergency Operations Centre (EOC) activated to coordinate the response activities at all level. With the alarming trend, Zamfara state also requested National Society assistance in the emergency action to reduce the huge burden on the health care services in the state.
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